Leadership – Part Two

X and Y Model of Leadership Style

In this model of leadership style there are two different types of managers, the X type of managers and the Y type of managers. In the X type of managers, they believe that the employees are less motivated to do the job and always try to escape from doing their job. In the Y type of managers, they believe that the employees are self-motivated and they do not need not be pushed to finish their tasks or responsibilities.

Situational Leadership Style

In this type of leadership approach, it is believed that the nature of work performed the external factors and the characteristics of followers provoke managers to exhibit different types of leadership styles.  

Contingency Models

After the trait theory and the behavioral theory, it has become apparent that there is not just one style of leadership that can be followed in all times. This has given rise to contingency theories. The word contingency is defined as “it depend”, as per the dictionary. It means that adopting the right kind of leadership style based on the situation. The various theories that can be treated as “contingency theories” are as follows:

  • Leadership continuum Theory
  • Path Goal Leadership Theory
  • Normative Leadership Theory
  • Leadership Substitutes Theory
  • Multiple Linkage theory
  • Cognitive resource theory
  • Contingency theory of Leadership Effectiveness.

Functional Theory (Hackman & Walton, McGrath, 1962)

This theory addresses the specific behavior of the leader expected to contribute for the organizational and unit effectiveness. As per this theory, a leader has done his job well when they contribute sufficiently for the effectiveness and cohesiveness of the group. This type of leadership is applied majorly for team leadership. As per Kozlowski et al. (1996), Zaccaro et al. (2001), Hackman and Walton (1986), Hackman & Wageman (2005), Morgeson (2005)), Klein, Zeigert, Knight, and Xiao (2006) observed five major functions a leader provides when promoting unit efficiency. These functions include: (1) environmental monitoring, (2) organizing secondary activities, (3) training and coaching subordinates, (4) motivating others, and (5) intervening actively in the group’s work.

Transactional and Transformational Theories  These theories were proposed by Burns

Transactional Leadership Theory  According to this theory, the leader has the power to perform certain tasks and reward or punish for the team’s performance. The leaders lead the group to attain goals.

Transformational Leadership Theory As per this theory the leader motivates and encourages his team to be efficient and effective. In this theory, the leader communicates to his team effectively in order to convey their goals to achieve. Here, the leader is always looking for ideas and has a big vision. As per this theory, the leaders and the followers raise each other to higher levels through motivation and commitment.  As per this theory, the leader instills great enthusiasm and provides direction to a group of individuals or team.


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